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No, no es un cardenal migratorio. ¡Esta es nada menos que la grandiosa Rosa de Venezuela (Brownea grandiceps)!

Posted by Admin | Posted in Educación It | Posted on 25-01-2014

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No, no es un cardenal migratorio. ¡Esta es nada menos que la grandiosa Rosa de Venezuela (Brownea grandiceps)!
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Image by barloventomagico
[Translation: No, it is not a Summer Tanager. This is nothing less than the magnificent Rose of Venezuela (Brownea grandiceps)!]

Sobre la rosa de montaña, y en particular la especie conocida como rosa de Venezuela, he escrito lo siguiente:

La rosa de montaña roja es una especie ilustre, cuyo abolengo se remonta a los tiempos de los cronistas de Indias, algunos de los cuales resaltaban sobre todo sus virtudes terapéuticas, como se comprueba en la cita siguiente tomada del fraile cronista del siglo XVIII llamado Antonio Caulín:

«Así la rosa, como el palo, dado en decocción, tiene virtud abstringente… y por eso lo aplican en disenterías, diarreas, &c. Lo más maravilloso de este Palo es, que aplicado à una cortadura, por profunda que sea, luego estanca la sangre; y separado vuelve à correr como antes corría, y por tanto lo aplican à los fluxos inmódicos de las mugeres, colgado à las caderas. Descubrióse esta virtud el año de veinte, y siete, en que un mozo de Don Juan Meleros se cortó con un hacha un pie, que tenía sobre un trozo de este palo; y al ver, que no echaba sangre, lo retiraron, y corrió en abundancia; volvieronlo à aplicar al trozo, y repentinamente se detuvo: de este suceso se siguió después hacer vários experimentos en copiosos fluxos de narices, y otras partes, y se ha encontrado tener virtud abstringente en sumo grado» (Caulín, 1992 [1779], p. 27-28).

En relación a este uso de la rosa de montaña como coagulante, se ha dicho que «en la región de Barlovento preparan con las flores una bebida o infusión y se la dan a las mujeres que tienen hemorragias después del parto» (Hoyos, 1985, p. 115). Caulín, como clérigo que era, daba también una sutil connotación religiosa al hecho de que, al ser seccionados transversalmente el tronco o las ramas de este árbol, sus vasos presentaran una disposición reminiscente de una cruz, «particularidad de esta especie, común probablemente a todo el género Brownea» (Pittier, 1970 [1926 y 1939], p. 343), incluido el roso blanco, árbol emblemático del Estado Miranda, que como sucede con algunos de sus parientes más connotados, a veces se les da por tal motivo el nombre de palo de cruz, palo cruz o rosa de cruz.

Hay una rosa de montaña muy especial, bautizada por los botánicos como Brownea grandiceps, que fue muy conocida y estimada fuera de nuestro país, en particular en Europa, donde le fue dado nada menos que el nombre de «Flor de Venezuela» o «Rosa de Venezuela» en razón de que «el material que sirvió para la primera descripción científica fue colectado en las montañas colindantes de la ciudad de Caracas por el botánico Bredemeyer. “Nunca he podido ver, sin recogimiento, los vetustos especímenes de dicha planta, que se hallan en las quebradas de Cotiza, por considerarlas como venerables testigos de los esfuerzos iniciales hechos en pro de la conquista de la riquísima flora venezolana”. Muchos de estos arbolitos fueron exportados cuidadosamente a Europa, donde fueron objeto de ornato, “El más hermoso árbol florido de América”, dirá un botánico europeo que visitó Venezuela en 1803» (Hoyos, 1974, p. 68). No extraña, por tanto, que el poeta barloventeño Oscar Rojas Jiménez le haya incorporado a su Canto al trópico americano en una estrofa que dice:

«Vi crecer a la orilla de mis años
tus bosques de la fiebre
y los cien pétalos ardientes
de la rosa de montaña atormentada»

(Rojas, 1954, p. 4)

Bibliografía citada

Caulín, Fray Antonio. 1992 [1779]. «Historia corográfica de la Nueva Andalucía». Academia Nacional de la Historia. Caracas.

Hoyos, Jesús. 1974. «Arboles cultivados de Venezuela». Sociedad de Ciencias Naturales La Salle. Caracas.

Hoyos, Jesús. 1985. «Flora emblemática de Venezuela». Petróleos de Venezuela. Caracas.

Pittier, Henri. 1970 [1926 y 1939]. «Manual de las plantas usuales de Venezuela y su suplemento». Fundación Eugenio Mendoza. Caracas.

Rojas Jiménez, Oscar. 1954. «Canto al trópico americano». Ediciones del Ministerio de Educación. Caracas.

Driving Licences
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Image by brizzle born and bred
History

driving test facts

Mr Bean was the first person to pass the driving test in 1935… fact! But it’s not that Mr Bean, it was Mr J Beene who paid a grand total of 37p (7d / 6p in old money) to take the test.

There were no test centres in 1935 so you had to arrange to meet the examiner somewhere like a post office, train station or town hall.

The test was suspended for the duration of World War Two and didn’t resume until 1 November 1946.

In 1975, candidates no longer had to demonstrate hand signals.

The theory test was introduced in 1996, replacing questions about the Highway Code during the practical test.

Driving was much more hazardous 75 years ago, 7,343 people were killed on Britain’s roads when only 2.4 million vehicles were in operation – in 2008, 2,538 people were killed with 26.5 million vehicles on the road.

Candidates could book their theory test online for the first time in December 2001.

The pass rate in 1935 was 63 per cent compared to 46 per cent in 2009.

1969 saw the first driving test set for an automatic vehicle.

Since 1935 more than 46 million tests have been taken.

See – The Funny Side Of Being A Driving Instructor!

www.squidoo.com/drivinginstructorsvideoshowcase

UK driving licences were introduced by the Motor Car Act 1903 but no test was required.

The Motor Car Act 1903 introduced registration of motor cars and licensing of drivers in the United Kingdom and increased the speed limit.

The act followed the Locomotives on Highways Act 1896 which had increased the speed limit for motorcars to 14 mph from previous 4 mph speed limit in rural area and 2 mph in towns.

There were some who wished to see the speed limit removed altogether.

The influential Automobile Club (soon to become the Royal Automobile Club or RAC) was split on the subject; the chair of the working group on the bill was Lord Montagu (MP) who took a moderate line supporting speed limits, but was opposed on this by the chairman of the organisation Roger Wallace who were ‘strongly against any speed limit’ and described Montagu as a ‘traitor’. The secretary of the club publicly proposed a ‘compromise’ of 25 mph without authorisation. Parliametary debates were described as ‘bitter’.

A test for disabled drivers was introduced by the Road Traffic Act 1930.

Legislation for compulsory testing was introduced for all new drivers with the Road Traffic Act 1934. The test was initially voluntary to avoid a rush of candidates until 1 June 1935 when all people who had started to drive on or after 1 April 1934 needed to have passed the test.

Testing was suspended during World War II.

Testing was suspended again during the Suez Crisis in 1956 to allow examiners help to administer petrol rations.

The Roads Act 1920 was Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom which established the Road Fund, introduced tax disks.

The driving theory test was introduced in July 1996 as a written examination which was updated to a computer based test in 2000.

The hazard perception test was introduced in November 2002.

Driving licenses go by several different names, used both colloquially and formally. Driver’s licence is used in Canada; driving license and driver license are used in the United States.

The form driver licence is found in New Zealand and Australia (being introduced). Conversely almost all Australians refer to it as a driver’s licence. Driving licence is used in India, the United Kingdom, the Republic of Ireland, Malta, in European Union official usage, and in former British colonies such as Hong Kong, Pakistan and Singapore.

The first driver’s license of sorts was issued to the inventor of the modern automobile, Karl Benz, in 1888. Because the noise and smell of his Motorwagen resulted in complaints by the citizens of Mannheim, Benz requested and received written permission by the Grand Ducal authorities to operate his car on public roads.

Up until the start of the 20th century, European authorities issued driver’s licences similarly ad hoc, if at all. The first locality to require a mandatory driving licence and testing was Prussia, on 29 September 1903. The Dampfkesselüberwachungsverein ("steam boiler supervision association") was charged with conducting the tests, which were mainly concerned with the drivers’ mechanical aptitude.

In 1910, the German imperial government mandated the licensing of drivers on a national scale, establishing a system of tests and driver’s education requirements that would serve as a model for the licensing laws of other countries.

As automobile-related fatalities soared in North America, public outcry provoked legislators to begin studying the French and German statutes as models. On August 1, 1910, North America’s first driver’s licensing law went into effect in the U.S. state of New York, though it initially applied only to professional chauffeurs. In July 1913, the state of New Jersey became the first to require all drivers to pass a mandatory examination before receiving a license.

Because a large number of countries, including Australia, New Zealand, Canada, the United Kingdom and the United States have no national identification cards and because of the widespread use of cars, driving licenses are often used as a de facto standard form of identification.

Many European countries, New Zealand and Canada require drivers to produce their license on demand when driving. In such countries, the driver must always carry their license on them when driving. In the United Kingdom, it is not necessary for drivers to carry their driving licence while driving. However, if stopped, a driver may be required to produce their licence at a nominated police station within seven days. The police issue a form for this purpose, colloquially known as the "seven-day wonder" or a "producer".

Some European countries require adults to carry identification at all times. A driving licence is not necessarily valid as identification in every European country.

In the People’s Republic of China (mainland), Hong Kong, Dominican Republic and Venezuela, the driving license number is the same as the citizen’s ID number.

A driving licence in Hong Kong carries the same number as the holder’s ID card, but has no photograph. Upon inspection both must be presented. Plans to make the newly phased in Smart ID contain driving licence information have been shelved.

Similarly, Saudi Arabia requires all drivers to carry an ID card in addition to a license and present them whenever requested. Using a driving licence instead is only permitted if the request is made for on-site inspection/identification purposes, especially at checkpoints. Expatriates may be requested to present their visas as well.

Egypt

Citizens of all Egyptian governorates are entitled to a driving license once they have reached the age of 18. To obtain their licenses, applicants must pass only one test.

Until a few years ago,when? Egypt was known for having the easiest driving test in the world. In order to pass, all a person had to do was drive six meters forward and then reverse six meters. However, the test has recently been updated to make it more difficult, now the applicant has to answer 8 out of 10 correct answers in a computer test, then pass a forward & reverse S-track test.

Morocco

The legal driving age of Moroccan Citizens is 18.

South Africa

The minimum driving age in South Africa is 18, except for small motorcycles which may be driven from the age of 16. To obtain a licence, applicants must pass a written or computer-based test to obtain a learner’s licence, and then pass a road test to obtain the driving licence.

Europe

The European Union has adopted a common format for Driving Licences, and a common set of Driving Licence categories. They were introduced to replace the 110 different plastic and paper driving licences. The common format with the same information in the same place on all licences allows the Driving Licence to be understood, even if it is in a different language. See: European driving licence.

Romania

The minimum age for obtaining a driver’s licence in Romania is 16 for A1, 18 for A, B, BE, Tr, C, CE and 21 for D, DE, Tb, Tv, D1 and D1E. In order to obtain a driving license, a person must follow a driving school with a duration depending on the desired category and pass a theory and road exam.

Canada

The age to obtain a driver’s licence in Canada varies by Province, as do the necessary procedures. The minimum age for obtaining a drivers’ licence to drive solo in most provinces is 16. The territories vary.

United States

The eligible age varies substantially by state, but by nationally by age 16 one can obtain a license after passing the requisite tests. Since the driver’s license is a commonplace document that carries much of the necessary information need for identification, it has become the primary method of identification in the United States.

Mexico

A driver is allowed a driver’s permit at the age of 14, until they receive a driving license at the age of 15, they are not allowed to drive alone

Jamaica

A citizen may obtain a learner’s permit once he or she is age 17. A learner will get their driving license upon being proven competent, only through the results of both a written and practical test. This license expires on the holder’s fifth birthday after the date of issue.

Costa Rica

Every vehicle driver must carry a driving license (Licencia de Conducir), which is issued by a special education department (Dirección General Educación Vial) of the ministry of transportation and public infrastructure (Ministerio de Obras Públicas y Transporte).

For this license to be granted there are three needed tests, practical driving (includes driving a car in simulated streets), theoretical driving (a multiple selection written test based on booklet issued by the education department or after taking a special course), and finally a medical test performed by a medical practitioner that tests eyesight, blood pressure and attests the presence of other diseases and behavior of the driver.

Every citizen can solicit a driving license at age 18, after being issued the first time, the license must be renewed after two years, and every successive occasion after five years.

Besides this document the driver must carry the national identity card (Cédula de Identidad), however both documents use the same identification number, the national identity card being the basis of the driving license number.

Pakistan

Pakistani driver’s license issued by Lahore District Police.The minimum age for eligibility for learner’s permit is 18 years de facto; as the driver’s information is saved against the Computerized National ID Card number which is issued at the age of 18. The License Issuing Authorities vary to each district and work under the relative District Police.

To obtain a driver’s license one must register for the learner’s permit at his/her local District Police’s designated license offices and after 42 days can apply for test for a regular full license. The test comprises of a theory based test followed by a short practical test. Only the one’s who pass the theory test are allowed to take the practical test. The whole test stage is a single day process where both the tests are to be taken the same day.

Australia

The minimum driving age varies between 16 to 18 years of age in different States and Territories. After the minimum age, a graduated licensing scheme operates, with State variations. Queensland implemented new laws after July 2007. Queensland follows a graduate licensing system, which runs like this: At 16 Years – learners permit (after passing theory test), Black and Yellow L plates must be displayed and 100 hours of on road driving must be logged including 10 hours of night driving.

At 17 Years a Q-Safe practical driving test may be taken if the license has been held for at least a year and the 100 logged hours are confirmed. If passed, the driver is issued with a P1 license. Red and white P plates must be displayed. Restrictions include a B.A.C of 0.00, no mobile phones while driving (including hands-free), no more than 1 passenger between 11pm – 5am (direct family members excepted) and no high powered cars, e.g. Turbo or 8 and 12 cylinder engines. At 18 Years a hazard perception test is taken. The driver then obtains a P2 License, which places restrictions similar to a P1, except that hands free phones may be used and no special restrictions are placed on the number of passengers allowed. At 20 Years the driver obtains an open license which has a maximum B.A.C of 0.05.

New Zealand

The minimum age to obtain a Learner Licence is 15 in New Zealand.

Day-camp kids entering the park
educación it

Image by Ed Yourdon
Note: this photo was published in a May 20, 2010 blog titled "Algunas recomendaciones para los cursos de verano." It was also published in a May 15, 2011 NYCppl.com blog titled "Happiness through yoga," as well as an undated (mid-May 2011) blog titled "Educación vial para niños (2): caminando por la calle."

***********************************

These pictures were taken on two successive days when I had doctor appointments on the Upper East Side of NYC, and had the chance to walk along Fifth Avenue, and then through Central Park in order to return to my apartment on the Upper West Side, at Broadway & 96th

I had now reached the west side of the inner roadway that circumnavigates Central Park, and was heading north toward the exit on 96th Street. This was almost at the 96th Street exit, where I planned to leave the park; indeed, you can see parts of a church on the far (west) side of Central Park West), as well as parts of a truck and traffic sign.

I was intrigued by this group of young children, who were entering the park under the watchful eye of a teacher or camp counselor. It appears that the kids were all wearing fluoresent vests of some kind, perhaps to make their presence more visible to passing cars. Note also how several of them are holding onto a rope, to keep themselves together…

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Hermosa

Awesome capture, perfect colours – beautiful work !

What is camp like in NYC? What do the kids do? And where?

At this young age, it’s likely to be a half-day program, though I don’t know that for certain. In any case, they probably assemble at one of the local schools, churches, or community centers in the neighborhood around Central Park. And then the teacher (or social worker, or community worker) takes them into the park, where they can run around in the meadow, or play in one of the playgrounds, of which there are several – with swings, slides, etc.

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